PEER POST, REVIEW NEEDED 100 words and 1 ReferenceDiscussion 9: Systematic Review The systematic review or practice guideline relies primarily on studies conducted in the last five years. Thissystematic review and meta-analysis on nonpharmacological interventionsfor ADHD was conducted through the use of a common systematic researchand a rigorous coding and data extraction strategy across domains.Sonuga-Barke et al. (2013) utilized electronic database to identifypublished randomized controlled trials which involved individuals with adiagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Thisstudy was published in The American Journal of Psychiatry in March 2013,which was four years ago. The review provides support for the importance of the study Theobjective on this systematic review and meta-analyses ofnonpharmacological interventions for ADHD of randomized controlledtrials on dietary and psychologic treatment is to bring to awarenessthat there are such treatments available for ADHD, although theirefficacy remains uncertain. The authors have used primary, rather than secondary sources. Sonuga-Barke et al. (2013)primarily utilized secondary sources due to the authors making use ofinformation previously researched regarding nonpharmacologicalinterventions for ADHD. Studies are critically examined and reported objectively The authors utilized randomized controlled trials including studieswith counterbalanced cross over designs published in peer reviewedjournals. The search was limited to published trials to ensure anadequate level of methodological adequacy and rigor among includedtrials with the purpose of avoiding bias and unpublished trials. Theauthors utilized a common search strategy which is to utilize a broadrange of electronic databases such as Science Citation Index Expanded,CINAHL, Ovid MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Social Sciences Citation Index, to namea few (Sonuga-Barke et al., 2013). Thesystematic review or practice guideline is organized so that a logicalunfolding of Ideas is apparent that supports the need for the review Thesystematic review and meta-analysis regarding nonpharmacologicalinterventions for ADHD is very well organized and easy to read format.In the very beginning of the article it includes the abstract whichsummarizes the objective, method, results, and conclusions. Sonuga etal., (2013) then proceed to providing background information about ADHDand listing the nonpharmacological interventions. Moreover, the methodssection discusses the inclusion criteria, search strategy, outcomesmeasure, study selection, data extraction, and statistical analysis.Furthermore, the results were discussed and included dietaryinterventions, and psychological interventions. Lastly, the discussionand conclusion provided detailed information about the benefits of thenonpharmacological interventions along with some statistics. The systematic review or practice guideline ends with a summary of the most important knowledge. The conclusion explicitly identified the main interventions along with their effectiveness. Sonuga-Barke et al. (2013) identified that free fatty acidsupplementation produced a small but significant reduction in ADHDsymptoms even with probably blinded assessments. Additionally, therewere limitations in finding evidence to support the value of behavioralinterventions due to unblended studies and possible relationship withthose investing in treatment success. Furthermore, neurofeedback,cognitive training, and restricted elimination diets demonstrated morepositive outcomes; however, evidence from blinded assessments isrequired in order to be supported as treatments for ADHD (Sonuga-Barkeet al., 2013). This article mentioned that a challenge which will befaced in the future is the ability to improve efficacy ofnonpharmacological interventions and understanding ADHD pathophysiologywhile trying to integrate better interventions (nonpharmacological)along with pharmacological interventions. There is an urgent need forproperly powered, randomized controlled trials which will includeblinded, ecologically valid outcome measures. Future trials should focusacross a broader range which includes the child, parent, andfamily-related functional outcomes (Sonuga-Barke et al., 2013). References Sonuga-Barke, E. J. , Brandeis D, Cortese S, Daley D, Ferrin M, Holtmann M, … Stevenson J. (2013). Nonpharmacologicalinterventions for ADHD: Systematic review and meta-analyses ofrandomized controlled trials of dietary and psychological treatments. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 170(3), 275-289. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12070991
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