The key concept in deductive logic is the concept of validity. Onegood way to learn to understand the concept of validity better is todiscover what makes arguments invalid.Prepare:To prepare to respond to this prompt read carefully the requiredportions of Chapters 3 and 4, paying special attention to the sectionsfrom Chapter 3 about validity and using the counterexample method. Take alook as well at the required resources from this week, especially thosethat discuss the concept of validity.Reflect:Choose an argument from the following list of arguments (try to makesure not to choose the same argument as someone else). Consider the wayin which the reasoning is actually invalid (perhaps subtly). Think aboutwhy that argument is invalid in the sense that it would be possible forall of the premises to be true and the conclusion false.Choose from the following list of argument options.1.If the maid was guilty then she would have had to been at the sceneduring the crime. However, she was seen a mile away only minutes beforethe crime, and she has no car. She must be innocent.2. Everyonehas to eat food with adequate calories. A bag of Doritos is food withadequate calories, so everyone should eat a bag of Doritos.3. All winos drink alcohol. All alcoholics drink too much. Therefore all winos are alcoholics.4. He won’t go to the wedding since he doesn’t like mushy stuff and weddings are mushy.5. I can’t go to the movies with you – I have a test tomorrow and I have to study.6. Capital punishment is wrong because it kills a human being.7. To go to the movie you have to have a ticket. To buy a ticket you must pay money. Thus, to go the movie you must pay money.8. All dogs have fur. All mammals have fur. So all dogs are mammals.9.If he makes a lot of money then he dresses nice and has a fancy car. Hedoes dress nice and have a fancy car. So he must make a lot of money.10. He will cry during the movie if he is a big softie. He cried during the movie. Therefore he is a big softie.11. If I wear that cologne then women will love me. I bought that cologne, so women are going to love me.12. No snakes are mammals. No mammals are birds. Therefore no snakes are birds.13. Every dog with brown fur hates cats. Some dogs have red fur. Therefore some dogs love cats.14. To fix your care you will need money. However, to have money you have to have money. It appears that you need to get a job.15. Only adults can legally drink. John is too young to legally drink. Therefore, John is not an adult.16. Mike loves pickles. Pickles come from cucumbers. Therefore Mike loves cucumbers.17. If you don’t do your chores then you can’t have any dessert. You really like dessert, so you will certainly do your chores.18. You can have soup or salad. You are having the salad, so you won’t be having any soup.19.You will get an A if you study hard and always come to class. You cameto class every time and studied. You are bound to get an A.20. Hebroke the record for rushing yards in a game on that last play. No oneelse has broken the record since then. Therefore he still holds therecord.21. He won the election. The election was for governor. So he will be the next governor.22.The sun has risen every morning for millions of years. The sun risesbecause the earth turns every 24 hours. Therefore the sun will riseagain tomorrow morning.23. If he loved you he would have shown up on time with flowers. He must not love you.24. Julie is allergic to gluten. So she won’t be having any bread.25. Only women can have babies, so women are more important to the survival of the species.26. You shouldn’t use drugs because they are addictive and can ruin people’s lives.27. You shouldn’t go out with that guy. He rides a motorcycle and goes to bars.28.In order to buy a car you will need money. But, to have money you needto get a job. But to go to a job you will need to be able to get towork. So, you will not be able to buy a car.29. Capitalpunishment kills a human being. It is wrong to kill a human being exceptin self-defense. So capital punishment is wrong.30. If you talkto Mike about politics then he will yell at you. If he yells at you thenyou will be hurt and it will damage your friendship. Therefore youshouldn’t talk to Mike about politics.31. Either the maid or thebutler did it. For the butler to have done it he would have had to havebeen at the mansion yesterday. The butler was away all day yesterday. Sothe maid did it.32. It is always wrong to kill a human beingunless it is in self-defense. Abortion kills a human being. So abortionis wrong unless the mother’s life is in danger due to the pregnancy.33.You shouldn’t tell someone to do something unless you would be willingto do it yourself. You’ve never gone to war. So you shouldn’t vote forothers to go to war.34. Government intervention is justified ifit is necessary to protect the welfare of the people and does notviolate anyone’s constitutional rights. Therefore, governmentintervention is justified in this specific case because it is necessaryto protect the welfare of the people.Write: Putthe argument into standard form, clearly identifying the premises andconclusion. Once you have done so then demonstrate that the argument isinvalid in one of two ways: Either explain a scenario in which thepremises could be true and the conclusion false, or find anotherargument with the same form that has true premises and a falseconclusion. Once you have done so, make sure to explain how yourargument refutes the validity of the original argument. Mention if youthink that there is anything that could be done to make the originalargument valid.
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