Write a 3 to 4-page double-spaced (1” margins 12 point fo

Write a 3 to 4-page double-spaced (1” margins, 12 point font) ‘reflection paper’ responding to the following questions:1) How did import substitution compare with export-oriented industrialization as a real-world strategy for economic development and modernization? Has the Washington Consensus proved to be a more beneficial model for developing states? Which industrialization strategy would you recommend to a developing country today? Why?I do not need many references!Remember, a reflection paper is not just a summary of the course readings or a stream of conscious mind dump on paper. Rather, it is a means for you to analyze and respond in a substantive way to the content, issues and controversies raised in the assigned reading.Text book: Essential of Comparative Politics: fifth edition chapter 10Chapter Review provided by professor:Freedom and Equality in the Newly Industrializing and Less-Developed CountriesThose countries traditionally referred to as the Third World are often divided into two groups to indicate important differences in their levels of development. Despite their differences, both types of countries are often classified as developing countries.Middle-income, or newly industrializing countries (NICs), like South Korea or Mexico, have shown swift economic development, social stability, and greater democratization.Lower-income, or less-developed countries (LDCs), like Ghana, display weak economic growth, and political and social instability.While they are increasingly moving apart in their development, these countries share a legacy of colonialism and imperialism, which has some long-term implications.Imperialism and ColonialismEmpires are single political authorities that have, under their sovereignty, a large number of external regions or territories.Imperialism is the system whereby a state extends its power to directly control territory, resources, and people beyond its borders. This should not be confused with colonialism, which involves a greater degree of physical occupation of a territory by settlers or the military.Modern imperialism can be dated to the 1500s, when technological development in Europe, the Middle East, and Asia (particularly advanced seafaring and military technology) allowed these states to project their military might far overseas.European imperialism was driven by economic and strategic motives, but also by evangelical religious beliefs.These empires stretched far into Latin America, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East.In the twentieth century, Japan engaged in imperialism for a short time.Institutions of ImperialismWhen imperialist nations conquered territories, they brought the idea of the modern state to these regions.State power often manifested itself in the form of bureaucracy, a new national language (the imperialist’s), roads, taxes, and military and police.Empires established control by installing loyal local leaders or by setting up new central authorities themselves.The imposition of the state had mixed effects, and its legacy has often left these countries in institutional limbo.Imperialism sometimes imposed new identities, displacing or incorporating them with existing social institutions.Ethnic identity (deeming some people superior to others even though those divisions did not exist previously) and national identity (nationalism and the idea of self-determination, which eventually led colonies to demand independence from the empire) were new identities in many of these regions. Colonialism would also establish identity hierarchies, shaping power relations in a way that would later lead to tensions and sometimes violence.When it comes to gender roles, the impact of colonialism depended greatly on the colonizer and the precolonial culture. While gender roles may have become more restrictive in some societies, in others, imperial rule created new social openings and economic opportunities for women.Regarding economic development, the long-term impact of imperialism is again mixed.Colonizers created cash-based, modern economies, building up state infrastructures and promoting a shift toward greater urbanization.Alternatively, colonies were run under mercantilist rules with the goal of extracting wealth and natural resources. This new economy created wealth for the empire, but was often not sustainable for the colonial economy.The colonies became captive markets for the finished goods of the home country (colonies were allowed to trade only within the empire), setting up an unfair trade relationship that has influence even today.The Challenges of PostimperialismAfter achieving independence, former colonies have struggled with building state capacity and autonomy, forging a social identity, and generating economic growth.Many newly industrializing and less-developed countries have struggled to establish effective political institutions.States lack capacity due to a history of foreign bureaucracy (which left after independence) and exacerbated by high levels of patrimonialism, clientelism, and rent seeking, all of which undermine state legitimacy.They also suffer from a lack of autonomy, as international bodies and more powerful states constrain the autonomy of NICs and LDCs, and because the autonomy that does exist often comes through force alone, further undermining legitimacy.These constraints have undermined sovereignty, contributed to political instability, and limited democratic development.After colonialism, NICs and LDCs have struggled to create and maintain coherent societies.The ethnic and religious hierarchies created by imperialism have led to clashes over economic power and political control and made establishing a strong national identity challenging.Gender roles imposed or reinforced by colonial rule persisted in many societies following independence, leading to gender imbalances. At the extreme level, gender inequality contributes to female infanticide and may be linked to civil conflicts.Economically, newly industrializing and less-developed countries were still dependent upon their former empires—a continuation of the unequal, imperialist structure called neocolonialism.To build their economies, some NICs and LDCs in Latin America and Africa turned to import substitution, restricting imports in favor of locally produced goods, a policy that had little success and was criticized as prone to corruption.Several Asian countries pursued a more successful policy of export-oriented industrialization, focusing on producing goods that could be exported, but even those countries experienced a significant economic downturn in the 1990s.Many developing countries were encouraged to employ neoliberalism, adopting structural adjustment programs (or the Washington Consensus) dictated by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. These policies required the privatization of industries, shifts toward more open markets, and more encouragement of foreign investment; these reforms have been controversial and their results have been mixed.Puzzles and Prospects for Democracy and DevelopmentPolitical scientists increasingly agree on why some newly industrializing and less-developed countries have been more successful than others.We know, for instance, that a high degree of ethnic divisions is linked to greater economic and political instability, that the amount of natural resources limit political and economic development, and that these problems cannot be addressed without an effective state.However, scholars differ widely in how to solve these challenges. The view of the state as a tool or obstacle to development in the postcolonial world has shifted over time.Early foreign aid was channeled into state-dominated, large-scale, top-down development projects like dams or health care, leading to serious waste and very little success.The Washington Consensus sought to roll back state power, encourage private industry, and limit regulation in the belief that market forces could succeed where states had failed; this policy, however, also proved problematic.More recent work has returned to focusing on the state as a vital actor, emphasizing the economic role it can play through promoting the rule of law and delivering public goods. Greater and more effective state capacity are needed to reduce corruption, improve health care, and increase economic growth.However, in development, there is no ‘one size fits all model,’ as any policy solutions will need to take into account the varying institutions at work within each country.Many scholars also debate how best to improve social conditions in the developing world.Some advocate the building of civil society to bridge societal divides, which can be achieved through careful institutional reforms and promoting local movements and organizations.Critics argue that this approach is well meant but unlikely to lead to any real outcomes as long as the country’s basic social conditions are dire. Instead, they believe that responses to social conditions may require significant international efforts. An example of this approach at work is the creation of the Millennium Villages Project in sub-Saharan Africa.A final problem of many less-developed countries is that most of the economy exists in the informal economy, where it is not regulated or taxed by the state.Informal economies often dominate weak states with widespread corruption.A large informal economy can lead to economic problems and limit potential growth. The inability to tax this economy prevents states from generating revenue, and the lack of regulation means businesses find it much harder to achieve the scale of larger firms.To reform these economies, some scholars call for establishment of property rights and more extensive use of microcredit (providing small loans to local people to allow them to start businesses) or microfinance (a broader spectrum of services, including credit, savings, insurance, and financial transfers). Critics, however, point out that there is no evidence that microfinance can lead to widespread growthGrading RubricElements considered in Reflection Paper grades:Does the paper contain a clear answer/argument addressing all components of the questions?Does the paper provide supporting evidence with examples from the text and other course materials?Does the paper show strong analytical thinking and understanding of the material in the text?Is the paper well organized and contain clear writing?


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